The New Republic of the Netherlands
When the throne of the Netherlands fell to the foreign monarch Philip II of Spain in 1556, the Netherlands became a Spanish possession.
The Father of the Dutch Republic was William the Silent (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584)
During the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648), he was the major leader of the Dutch Revolt, which saw the Netherlands emerge as a state and declare independence from the Spanish Empire in 1581.
In 1588, the new Dutch Republic was established.
In the 17th century, the Dutch Republic rose to prominence as a major player in European trade, science, and art.
The Dutch East India Company (United East India Company) was a megacorporation that thrived as part of the great Dutch economic empire in the East Indies for most of the 17th century (present-day Indonesia).
In 1799, it was dissolved.
Capitalism was an economic and political system that encouraged trade, drew immigrants, and boosted the development of major cities and ports.
Dutch Painting’s History
From around 1620 to 1680, the Dutch Golden Age established a distinct style of painting that emphasised landscapes such as the dunes along the western sea coast and rivers with surrounding fields where cattle grazed, often with a vision of a city in the distance.
They showed everyday life using moralistic proverbs and sayings from the Netherlands.
Between 1605 and 1635, approximately 100,000 paintings reflecting the city’s illustrious history and products were made in Haarlem, the capital of the province of North Holland, by artists such as Frans Hals and Jacob van Ruisdael, Lieven de Key, and Jan Steen.
During the 17th century, wealthy individuals commissioned many portrait paintings.
For the next two centuries, art in Europe was based on the Dutch words “stilleven” and “landschap,” which were translated into English as “still life” and “landscape.”
The Golden Age never fully recovered from the Franco-Dutch War (1672-78), which resulted in the republic’s collapse in 1795 and England’s colonial empire.
During the Golden Age, there were a number of notable masters.
Harmenszoon van Rijn, Rembrandt (1606 – 1669)
Rembrandt is widely regarded as one of the most important artists in the history of Baroque painting.
He was a prolific master in three media: draughtsman, painter, and printer, as well as a teacher of many prominent Dutch Painter Of The Night.
Portraits and self-portraits were among his subjects, as were landscapes, genre scenes, allegorical and historical situations, Biblical and mythological themes, and animal studies.
Rembrandt’s Famous Paintings *The Night Watch (1642)
The Night Watch is known for three things: its enormous scale (363 cm 437 cm (11.91 ft 14.34 ft)), the dramatic use of light and shadow (tenebrism), and the perception of mobility in what would otherwise be a static military group portrait.
Bride of a Jew (1665)
The sitters were highlighting the fidelity and piety of the Jewish Bride, shown as Isaac and Rebecca, and that their marriage was pleasant and virtuous.
On the Sea of Galilee, there was a storm (1633)
An oil-on-canvas painting depicts Jesus calming the storm on the Sea of Galilee, as told in the Bible.
It’s Rembrandt’s one and only seascape.
Christ’s Head (1648)
The Head of Christ is a painting from 1648 that is presently housed in Berlin’s Gemäldegalerie.
Bathsheba at Her Bathsheba at Her Bathsheba at Her Baths (1654)
The picture depicting King David observing Bathsheba swimming from the Old Testament is in the Louvre.
Vermeer, Johannes (1632 – 1675)
Johannes Vermeer was a Painter Of The Night who specialised in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life and his mastery of light in his work. He was a Dutch Golden-Age artist who specialised in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life and his mastery of light in his work.
“Almost all of his paintings,” Hans Koningsberger observed, “appear to be set in two little rooms of his Delft house; they show the same furniture and furnishings in varied arrangements, and they frequently feature the same characters, primarily ladies.”
About 36 of his paintings have survived and are now housed in some of the world’s most prestigious museums.
View of Delft (1661), Girl with a Pearl Earring (1665), The Milk Maid (1658), and The Little Street (1658) are some of the most famous paintings (1658)
Frans Hals (Frans Hals) (1582 – 1666)
Frans Hals the Elder was a Baroque painter best known for huge group portraits showing local civic guards and portraits of affluent individuals.
Banquets, meetings of officials, guildsmen, local councilmen, itinerant performers and singers, gentlemen, fishwives, and bar heroes are depicted in his paintings.
His wedding photographs show the husband on the left and the woman on the right, as is customary.
One of Hals’ most famous works is the Laughing Cavalier (1624), and the Banquet of the Officers (1616) of the St Adrian Militia Company in 1627 catches each character in a range of stances and facial expressions.
Among his many works are: *Banquet of the Officers (1616), *Laughing Cavalier (1624), and *Laughing Boy (1625). (1525)
*Sergeants and Officers (1639)
Jan Steen is a writer who lives in Denmark (1626 – 1679)
Jan Havickszoon Steen (1626–3 February 1679) was a 17th-century Dutch painter known for portraits, historical and Biblical themes, genre painting, and paintings based on old Dutch proverbs or literature.
Members of Steen’s family were frequently employed as models.
*Harpsichord Lesson (1660), *The Dancing Couple (1663), *Feast of Saint Nicholas (1665), *The Happy Family (1666). (1668)
Rachel Ruysch is a writer who lives in the Netherlands (1664 – 1750)
Rachel Ruysch was a flower-focused Dutch still-life painter from the Northern Netherlands.
Her career as a painter extended six decades, and she is the best-documented female painter of the Dutch Golden Age.
She began painting at the age of fifteen and continued until she was eighty-three years old, when she died at the age of eighty-six.
*Roses, Convolvulus, Poppies, and Other Flowers in an Urn on a Stone Ledge (1688) *Flowers in a Vase (1699) *Flowers in a Glass Vase (1699) *Roses, Convolvulus, Poppies, and Other Flowers in an Urn on a Stone Ledge (1688) *Roses, Convolvulus, Poppies, and Other Flowers in an Urn on a Stone Ledge (1688) *Ro (1704)
Still Life with Flowers (1726)
The Elder Pieter Brueghel (1525 – 1569)
Pieter Bruegel was a Flemish (Flanders) artist and printmaker who specialised in landscapes and peasant scenes during the Dutch Renaissance.
To expand his subject matter, he would often disguise himself as a peasant and attend local events such as county fairs and weddings.
To separate himself from other painters in his family, such as his son Pieter Bruegel the Younger, he was dubbed “Peasant Bruegel” (1564-1638).
His paintings portray peasants in landscapes, theological works such as Paul’s Conversion and St. John the Baptist’s Sermon, and religious proverbs, all of which are typical of the Northern Renaissance.
*The Harvesters (1565), *The Hay Harvest (1565), and *The Peasant Wedding (1565) are all well-known paintings (1567)
*The Sermon on the Mount by St. John (1564)
Terbrugghen, Hendrick (1588-1629)
Hendrick Jansz ter Brugghen (or Terbrugghen) was a Dutch painter who was a member of the so-called Utrecht Caravaggisti, who were followers of Caravaggio (an Italian painter active in the late 1500s and early 1600s).
Half-length figures of drinkers or musicians, religious images, and group portraits were among his genre scenes.
*Bagpipe Player (1624) *The Singing Lute Player (1624) *Crucifixion with the Virgin and St John (1625) *The Denial of St. Peter (1625) are only a few of the famous paintings (1628)
Rubens, Peter Paul (1577-1640)
Rubens is widely regarded as the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition in Europe throughout the 17th century, as well as his great Spanish patron Philip IV’s favourite painter.
He created antiquity masterpieces from classical and Christian history, mythology, altarpieces, portraits, and landscapes during his lifetime.
In addition, he was a prolific cartoonist for the Flemish tapestry studios.
Royalty and churches were among his benefactors.
*Samson and Delilah (1610) *The Descent from the Cross (1614) *Self Portrait (1610) *The Elevation of the Cross (1610) (1639)
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